Abbreviation Full form Significance
a.f., aq., aqt., aqua., aquaf. aqua forti or aquaforti fecit etched by
A.P. artist’s proof printed for the artist’s personal use at the same time as the regular edition, but not numbered as part of it
APDR avec privilège du roi French privileges until 1792
aq:tinta. aquatinta aquatinted by
B.A.T. bon à tirer fit to print (no more changes or corrections need to be made on the matrix)
cae., cael. caelavit engraved by
comp. composuit designed by (e.g., person who made a drawing for an engraver to work from)
CPR cum privilegio regis French privileges until 1792
CPES cum privilegio Excellentissimi Senatus Venetian privilege
CPSCM cum privilegio sacrae Caesaris Maiestatis privileges within the jurisdiction of the Holy Roman Emperors
del., delt., delin. delineavit drawn by
deping., depingeb. depingebat painted or depicted by
desig. designavit designed or drawn by
dess. dessiné drawn by
direx. direxit directed by
divulg. divulgavit published by
E.A.A.C. Entered According to Act of Congress copyright in the U.S.
effig. effigiavit drawn by
engd., eng. engraved or engraver engraved by
ex., exc., exct., excud. excudit published or printed by
fac. faciebat made by
f., fec., fect. fecit made by
fig. figuravit drawn by
gedr. zu gedruckt zu printed at
gez. gezeichnet drawn by
H.C. hors commerce not for sale
imp. impressit printed by
inc., incid. incidit or incidebat engraved by
in., inv. invenit designed by
lith., litho., lithog. lithographed by drawn on stone or published on stone by
ph sc. photosculpsit photo‐engraved by
ping., pins., pinx., pinxt. pingebat or pinxit painted by
scrip. scripsit engraved text by
sc., sculp., sculps., sculpt. sculpebat or sculpsit engraved or etched by


Gascoigne, Bamber. How to Identify Prints. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

Griffiths, Antony. Prints and Printmaking. London: British Museum Press, 1996.

Philadelphia Print Shop. Glossary of Printmaking Nomenclature and Abbreviations, 2005,

Zigrosser, Carl, and Christa M. Gaehde. A Guide to the Collecting and Care of Original Prints. New York: Crown Publishers, 1965.

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