- 0.4.01 Transcribed elements
- 0.4.05 General guidelines on transcription
- 0.4.1 Letters, diacritical marks, ligatures, symbols, and rebuses
- 0.4.2 Capitalization and conversion of case
- 0.4.3 Punctuation
- 0.4.4 Spacing
- 0.4.5 Omissions
- 0.4.6 Interpolations
- 0.4.7 Inaccuracies, misprints, etc.
- 0.4.8 Other transcription rules
- 0.4.9 Intra- and inter-element rules
0.4.01 Transcribed elements
Chapter 1: Title
Chapter 2: Statement of responsibility
Chapter 3: Edition
Designation of edition • Parallel designation of edition • Statement of responsibility relating to edition • Parallel statement of responsibility relating to edition • Designation of named revision of edition • Parallel designation of named revision of edition • Statement of responsibility relating to named revision of edition • Parallel statement of responsibility relating to named revision of edition
Chapter 5: Production, publication, distribution, manufacture
Place of publication • Parallel place of publication • Name of publisher • Parallel name of publisher • Date of publication • Place of distribution • Parallel place of distribution • Name of distributor • Parallel name of distributor • Date of distribution • Place of manufacture • Parallel place of manufacture • Name of manufacturer • Parallel name of manufacturer • Date of manufacture
Chapter 8: Series
Title of series • Parallel title of series • Other title information of series • Parallel other title information of series • Statement of responsibility relating to series • Parallel statement of responsibility relating to series • Numbering within sequence
0.4.05 General guidelines on transcription
0.4.05.1 Transcribe information in the form and order in which it is presented in the resource, according to these general rules, unless instructed otherwise by specific instructions. Do not use the mark of omission to indicate transposition (see also Order and transposition).
DCRMR normalizes punctuation and capitalization based on current conventions, with an optional exception in punctuation (see 0.4.31.5). Alternatively, retain original capitalization and punctuation following RDA Toolkit: RDA Guidelines on basic transcription and consistently apply it throughout the resource description.
0.4.1 Letters, diacritical marks, ligatures, symbols, and rebuses
0.4.12 Letters and diacritical marks
0.4.12.1 In general, transcribe letters and diacritical marks as they appear. Do not add accents and other diacritical marks not present in the manifestation. Convert earlier forms of letters and diacritical marks to their modern form (see Early letterforms and symbols, 0.4.15.1).
0.4.12.2 Optionally, when converting uppercase to lowercase, add diacritical marks that are not present on the source of information in accordance with the pattern of usage in the text.
0.4.13.1 In most languages, including Latin, transcribe a ligature by giving its component letters separately. Do not, however, separate the component letters of æ in Anglo-Saxon; œ in French; or æ and œ in ancient or modern Scandinavian languages.
0.4.14 Symbols, etc.
0.4.14.1 Replace symbols or other matter that cannot be reproduced using available typographical facilities with a cataloger’s description in square brackets. Make a note if necessary.
For additional guidance on recording signs and symbols, see the LC-PCC PS for 1.7.5.
A.J. Garnerin, aeoronaute, inv. du parachute, né à Paris 1769, [death symbol] 1813
(Source of information reads: A.J. GARNERIN, AERONAUTE, Inv. du Parachute, Né à Paris 1769 † 1813)
0.4.15 Early letterforms and symbols
0.4.15.1 Convert earlier forms of letters and symbols to their modern forms.
|Early letterforms and symbols|
|Source||Transcription||Example||Transcription of example||Notes|
||alijs ooghelijck||Ligatured italic ij may look like ÿ|
|k||Typical in early French signatures|
|MDCCV||Inverted C used to form Roman numeral M or D is called an apostrophus|
||s||refuse||Long s (an f has a crossbar on the stem; the bar on a long s, if present, extends from one side only)|
|sz||desz||Long s and z are spaced normally, no ligature|
|¨||Büche||Superscript e functioning as an umlaut|
0.4.16.1 If brevigraphs (special marks of contraction in continuance of the manuscript tradition) have been used, expand affected words to their full form and enclose supplied letters in square brackets. The values of many contractions are dependent on context, with the most common values provided here.
|Source||Transcription||Example||Transcription of example||Notes|
|[missing letter(s)]||co[n]summatu[m] D[omi]n[u]s||Over a vowel, usually n or m; over a consonant, often replaces several letters|
|[Christus]||A contraction using both Greek and Latin letters|
|A highly versatile symbol; see also, for example, “[habet],” “[que],” “[scilicet],” and “[sed]” below|
||[que]||quo[que] Herculeae[que] quos[que]|
|When y is used to represent the Old English / Icelandic character þ [thorn], enclose th plus additional letters in square brackets.|
|Superscript; a similar character at baseline represents “[con]”|
0.4.16.2 Make an explanatory note if necessary.
0.4.16.3 If a brevigraph standing for an entire word appears in the source, supply instead the word itself, enclosed in square brackets. However, transcribe an ampersand or a Tironian sign (⁊) as an ampersand. Enclose each expansion or supplied word in its own set of square brackets.
Sould by Will. Faithorne att [the] sign of [the] Shipp within Temple Bar
(Source of information reads: Sould by Will. Faithorne att Sign of Shipp within Temple Bar)
0.4.17.1 Replace pictures in rebuses with the intended words in square brackets.
Make an explanatory note.
Title proper: The [Bute] interest in the [city], or, The [bridge] in the [hole]
Note on title: The following words in the title are represented by images: Lord Bute as a boot, city by a panorama of London with a view of St. Paul’s Cathedral, bridge by an image of a bridge, hole by a black circle with uneven edges
0.4.2 Capitalization and conversion of case
0.4.21 General rule
0.4.22 Roman numerals
0.4.22.1 Do not convert case when transcribing roman numerals.
0.4.23 Letterforms I, V, i, j, u, and v
0.4.23.1 If the rules for capitalization require converting I or V to lowercase, or i, j, u, or v to uppercase, follow the pattern of usage in the text to determine which letterform to use in the transcription.
Establish the pattern of usage by examining text in the same typeface (i.e., roman, italic, or gothic) in the resource being described. Look for letters expressed in the opposite case from the letterforms to be converted, but having the same function (vowel or consonant) and same relative position (appearing in initial, medial, or final positions) as the letterforms to be converted. Begin by examining the remainder of the title page and then, if necessary, proceed to examine the body of the text in other parts of the resource in the same typeface.
Title proper: Les oeuures morales de Plutarque
Statement of responsibility relating to title proper: translatees de grec en françois, reueues et corrigees en plusieurs passages par le translateur
(Source of information reads: LES OEVVRES MORALES DE PLVTARQVE, TRANSLATEES DE GREC EN FRANÇOIS, REVEVES ET corrigees en plusieurs passages par le translateur)
(Comment: In the manifestation, the body of the text in roman type shows consistent use of v for vowels or consonants in initial position and u for vowels or consonants elsewhere, e.g., “ville,” “vn,” “conuersation,” “tout,” and “entendu”)
0.4.23.2 If the pattern of usage cannot be determined within a reasonable amount of time, use this conversion table as a solution of last resort.
Converting uppercase letterforms
|Uppercase letterform to be converted||Lowercase conversion|
|I (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word||i|
|II at end of word||ij|
|II elsewhere in word||ii|
|V (vowel or consonant) at beginning of word||v|
|V (vowel or consonant) elsewhere in word||u|
Converting lowercase letterforms
|Lowercase letterform to be converted||Uppercase conversion|
|i (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word||I|
|j (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word||I|
|u (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word||V|
|v (vowel or consonant) anywhere in word||V|
0.4.23.3 If any letterform within the first five words of the Title proper has been converted from I to j, from j to I, from V to u, or from u to V (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation using alternative forms of the Title proper as needed (see 1.25.3515.1).
0.4.23.4 If the manifestation uses a gothic typeface that does not distinguish between the letters i/j or the letters u/v, transcribe the letters as i and v respectively.
0.4.24 Final capital “I” in Latin
0.4.24.1 Do not convert to lowercase a final capital I in Latin texts when the final I is uppercase and the immediately preceding letters in the word are lowercase or smaller capital letters. Since this usage is not merely typographic but affects meaning, the capital must be left in that form.
M. AccI Plauti quae supersunt Comoediae
(Source of information reads:
m. accI plavti qvae svpersvnt comoediae)
ValerI Andreae DesselI I.C. Bibliotheca Belgica
(Source of information reads:
valerI andreae desselI i.c. bibliotheca belgica)
0.4.24.2 If the letter occurs within the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of title with the final capital I converted to ii (see 1.25.352.1).
0.4.25.1 Capital letters occurring apparently at random or in a particular sequence may represent a chronogram. Where there is good reason to assume that a chronogram is being used, do not convert letters considered part of the chronogram from uppercase to lowercase, or from lowercase to uppercase.
Ipso anno tertIo saeCVLarI typographIae DIVIno aVXILIo a gerManIs InVentae
For guidance on recording the chronogram as a date element, see the instructions for specific types of dates as follows:
- For Date of publication, see 22.214.171.124
- For Date of distribution, see 126.96.36.199
- For Date of manufacture, see 5.33.352.2
0.4.31 General rule
0.4.31.1 Use modern punctuation conventions instead of transcribing punctuation as it appears on the source.
Perdito & Perdita, or, The man & woman of the people
(Source of information reads: Perdito & Perdita—or—the Man & Woman of the People)
A musical entertainment perform’d on November XXII, 1683
(Source of information reads: A musical entertainment perform’d on November XXII. 1683)
0.4.31.2 If the cataloging agency applies ISBD punctuation, omit punctuation present on the source that occurs at the end of an element.
London : Printed for A. Millar, over-against Catharine-Street in the Strand, M,DCC,LI 
(Source of information reads: London: Printed for A. Millar, over-against Catharine-street in the Strand. M,DCC,LI.)
0.4.31.3 Omit or add punctuation as needed for clarity.
Libres, libertad de cultos, libertad de palabra, libres de miseria, libres de temor
(Comment: Commas added to represent breaks indicated by poster’s lettering style and word placement)
0.4.31.4 Alternative rule. Transcribe all punctuation as it appears on the source, with the exception of those marks covered in the following sub-instructions:
- Ellipses (see 0.4.35.1)
- Square brackets (see 0.4.355.1)
- Virgules (see 0.4.36.1)
- Line endings (see 0.4.37.1)
Perdito & Perdita—or—The man & woman of the people
If a cataloging agency applies ISBD punctuation and the option for transcribing original punctuation is applied, then record both transcribed punctuation and prescribed punctuation, even if this results in double punctuation. (See also Prescribed punctuation.)
London: : Printed for A. Millar, over-against Catharine-street in the Strand., M,DCC,LI. 
0.4.31.5 Punctuation integral to words and compound words. Generally transcribe integral punctuation as it appears on the source (e.g., printers’ or night-club). Do not add or omit punctuation integral to the spelling of words and compound words. Apply the following sub-instructions, as appropriate:
- Apostrophes (see 0.4.32.1)
- Hyphens (see 0.4.33.1)
- Punctuation within roman numerals (see 0.4.34.1)
- Punctuation substituting for letters (see 0.4.38.1)
- Punctuation indicating an abbreviation (see 0.4.385.1)
0.4.32.1 Transcribe apostrophes as found.
Uncle Wiggly’s story book
0.4.32.2 Do not supply apostrophes not present in the source.
Scotlands speech to her sons
0.4.33.1 Transcribe hyphens used to connect the constituent parts of compound words, normalizing their form as necessary.
A catalogue of the library of Yale-College in New-Haven
A night-club map of Harlem
0.4.33.2 Do not supply hyphens not present in the source.
Report of the Boston Female Anti Slavery Society
Black and white photographs in Jury Assembly Room, first floor of U.S. Courthouse, Orlando, Florida
0.4.34 Punctuation within roman numerals
0.4.34.1 Retain internal marks of punctuation appearing within roman numerals.
0.4.35.1 Omit ellipses when present in the source.
Title proper: America, America, God shed his grace on thee and crown thy good with brotherhood
(Source of information reads: … America, America, God shed his grace on thee and crown thy good with brotherhood …)
0.4.35.2 Optionally, ellipses present in the source may be retained if considered important for meaning, clarity, or identification. If retained, make an explanatory note.
Title proper: …it felt like i knew you…
Note on title: Ellipses in title appear on the source
0.4.355 Square brackets
0.4.355.1 Replace square brackets with parentheses when present in the source. Make an explanatory note if considered important.
Other title information: A treatise wherein this case (how to discerne Gods answers to our prayers) is briefly resolved
Note on title: The words “how to discerne Gods answers to our prayers” on the title page are in square brackets
(Source of information reads: A Treatise wherein this Case [How to discerne Gods answers to our prayers] is briefly resolved)
0.4.355.2 Optionally, omit the square brackets. Make an explanatory note if considered important.
Date of publication: MDCCLXXV
Note on publication statement: On title page, the date of publication is enclosed by square brackets
(Source of information reads: [MDCCLXXV])
0.4.355.3 Optionally, square brackets present in the source may be retained if they indicate interpolation and are important for meaning and clarity. If retained, make an explanatory note.
0.4.36.1 Do not confuse a virgule (/) in gothic typefaces with a slash; replace it with a comma or omit it, as appropriate. Make an explanatory note if considered important.
0.4.37 Line endings
0.4.37.1 Omit hyphens or other marks of punctuation used to connect a single word divided between two lines or two portions of a line; transcribe as a single word, ignoring the punctuation. If the function of the hyphen is in doubt (e.g., if it might form part of a compound word), transcribe it.
I discorsi di Nicolo Machiauelli, sopra la prima deca di Tito Liuio
(Source of information reads (showing line endings):
I DISCORSI DI NICO-
LO MACHIAVELLI, SO-
PRA LA PRIMA DECA DI
TITO LIVIO )
Do not supply marks of punctuation to indicate line breaks.
0.4.38 Punctuation substituting for letters
0.4.38.1 Transcribe as a single hyphen each distinct hyphen, dash, line, or underscore character used in the source, whether used as a substitute for one or more letters in a word or for an entire word.
Sec‐‐t‐‐‐‐s of st‐‐te, the L‐‐‐‐ds of the Ad‐‐‐‐‐‐ty
(Source of information reads: Sec‐‐t‐‐‐‐s of st‐‐te, the L‐‐‐‐ds of the Ad‐‐‐‐‐‐ty)
Map illustrating the explorations of Pundit A- K- in Great Tibet, 1879-1882
(Source of information reads: Map illustrating the explorations of Pundit A___ K___ in Great Tibet, 1879-1882)
0.4.38.2 Transcribe asterisks as asterisks.
par Mr. B**
The conduct of the two B*****rs
0.4.38.3 If the values of the missing letters are known, and the decoded form is considered important for identification or access then make a note for the decoded form.
Title proper: Clara H-d
Note on title: Clara H-d is Clara Hayward
(Source of information reads: Clara H_____d)
0.4.38.4 If punctuation substituting for letters occurs in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), and the values of the missing letters are known, then record a Variant title of manifestation (see 1.25.3525.1).
0.4.385 Punctuation indicating an abbreviation
0.4.385.1 Transcribe punctuation indicating an abbreviation, normalizing its form according to modern conventions.
Printed & sold by J. Preston
(Source of information reads: Printed & sold by J: Preston)
Ie. recueil nouveaux
(Source of information reads: I.E Recueil Nouveaux)
0.4.39 Quotation marks
0.4.39.1 Retain quotation marks that indicate dialogue.
“Miss, I have a monstrous crow to pluck with you!!”
0.4.42 Spacing within words and numbers
0.4.42.1 In general, follow modern spacing conventions when transcribing from the source. Make no attempt to preserve full or irregular spaces between letters within words.
(Source of information reads: G R AE C AE GRAMMATICES)
Example: Leo Belgicus (Source of information reads: LE O BELGICV S)
0.4.42.2 If a word is divided between the end of one line and the beginning of the next, transcribe it as a single word, ignoring the line break.
De laudibus urbis Etruriae et Italiae
(Source of information reads (showing line endings):
BVS VRBIS ETRVRIAE
Catalogus vniuersalis pro nundinis Francofurtensibus vernalibus de anno …
(Source of information reads (showing line endings):
VERSALIS PRO NVN -
bus vernalibus de anno …)
0.4.42.3 Omit internal spaces when transcribing numbers (including roman numerals).
(Source of information reads: M. D. CC. XLIV)
(Source of information reads: 1/12 000)
0.4.43 Spacing between words
0.4.43.1 If spacing between words in the source is ambiguous, or lacking, include spaces in the transcription to separate the words as needed.
Founding fathers folly day
(Source of information reads: Foundingfathersfollyday)
La morte d’Orfeo
(Source of information reads: LAMORTE D’ORFEO)
0.4.43.2 If the missing spaces occur in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of title as it appears in the source, without the spaces (see 1.25.353.1).
0.4.44 Variant spellings
0.4.44.1 Do not insert or delete spaces within or between words that merely represent variant or archaic spellings.
At the foot of the trail, Yo Semite Valley
(Source of information reads: At the Foot of the Trail,—Yo Semite Valley)
Newhampshire & Vermont almanac
(Source of information reads: Newhampshire & Vermont ALMANAC)
0.4.44.2 If the variant or archaic spellings occur in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of the title with the spacing inserted (see 1.25.3535.1).
0.4.45 Initials, etc.
0.4.45.1 Transcribe letters, initials, initialisms, and acronyms without internal spaces, regardless of how they appear in the source.
KL Ianuarius habet dies xxxi
Music sellers to HRH the Prince of Wales
A.B.C. indicateur alphabetique des chemins de fer et de la navigation
F.S. Chanfrau in the character of “Mose”
drawn by M.B. Haynes, C.E.
0.4.45.2 Treat an abbreviation consisting of more than a single letter as if it were a distinct word, separating it with a space from preceding and succeeding words or initials.
Dn. Abrahami Calovii, SS. Theol. Doct. Prof. Publ.
par MM. B. Studer et A. Escher de la Linth
first collected by Chr. Ign. La Trobe
0.4.45.3 If two or more distinct initialisms (or sets of initials), acronyms, or abbreviations appear in juxtaposition, separate them with a space.
M. J.P. Rabaut
(Comment: The first initial stands for Monsieur)
by D.L. M.A.
(Comment: The first two initials stand for the author’s forename and surname; the second two initials stand for “Master of Arts.”)
0.4.51 General rule
0.4.51.1 Indicate omissions in a quoted note or transcribed element by using the mark of omission. When using the mark of omission, generally give it with a space on either side.
Printed by Leon. Lichfield … and are to be sold by the Widow Howell
Printed for John Melish, John Vallance, and H.S. Tanner … by G. Palmer
0.4.51.2 However, give a space on only one side of the mark of omission if it is preceded by an opening parenthesis or opening square bracket; is followed by a closing parenthesis, closing square bracket, or comma; or, if using ISBD punctuation, comes at the end of an element.
Printed for the Widow Swart …, 1688
(Comment: The mark of omission has a space on only one side because it is at the end of an element)
Se vend chez Audran aux Deux Piliers d’Or rue St. Jacques …, [late 17th century] (Comment: The mark of omission has a space on only one side because it is at the end of an element)
0.4.51.3 Exception: instructions for some elements specify that certain omissions can be indicated by concisely summarizing the omitted text (in square brackets). In such cases, do not record the mark of omission (for example, see Name of publisher, 188.8.131.52).
Printed for J. Round, R Gosling, T. Woodward [and 9 others]
0.4.52 Information not considered part of any transcribed element
0.4.52.1 Omit, without using the mark of omission, grammatically separable information not considered part of any transcribed element. Such information may include quotations, epigrams, mottoes, advertisements, etc.
If considered important, give the omitted information in a note.
0.4.53 Information not taken from the preferred source of information
0.4.53.1 If information is transcribed from a source other than the preferred source of information and the transcribed information is preceded or followed by grammatically separable information that is not considered part of the element, then omit the words that precede or follow. Do not use the mark of omission.
If considered important, give the omitted text in a note.
Designation of edition: The second edition
Note on edition statement: Edition statement from colophon; full colophon reads: This, the second edition of Le morte Darthur, with Aubrey Beardsley’s designs … is limited to 1000 copies for the United Kingdom and 500 for America, after printing which the type has been distributed
0.4.61 General rule
0.4.61.1 Indicate an interpolation in a transcribed element or in a quoted note by enclosing it in square brackets. If transcribing text with missing or obscured letters or words that can be reconstructed with some certainty, include these in the transcription, enclosing them in square brackets.
Make an explanatory note if considered important for identification.
For guidance on expanding brevigraphs (special marks of contraction in continuance of the manuscript tradition), see 0.4.16.1.
(Comment: The word ends with a symbol)
Spectrographie des rayons [gamma] par diffraction cristalline
(Comment: The Greek symbol for “gamma” is used in the title)
Repertorium nouu[m] cum additionibus ad omnia opera Felini Sandei Farrariensis
(Comment: “Nouum” on title page spelled with symbol similar to cursive “z”)
0.4.62 Conjectural and indecipherable text
0.4.62.1 Indicate a conjectural interpolation by adding a question mark immediately after the interpolation, within the square brackets. Supply a question mark enclosed in square brackets for each indeterminable word or portion of word.
Make a note to justify the interpolations, provide explanations, or offer tentative readings of indecipherable portions of text if considered important.
(Comment: The word ends with a symbol of contraction that is conjectured to be a )
Mr. [‐‐ch?], Cornhill
(Comment: Indecipherable signature above title on cover transcribed in a Note on item)
Title proper: Ft. Monroe [Gunnery?]
Note on title: Last word of the title is illegible; the conjecture is based on image content
0.4.63 Lacunae in imperfect copies
0.4.63.1 If the description is based on an imperfect copy and the omission cannot be conjectured, then use the mark of omission enclosed in square brackets ([…]) to show lacunae in the resource.
Place of publication: En Barcelona
Name of publisher: Por Sebastian Mateu[…], acosta de lua[…]
Note on publication statement: Description based on an imperfect copy; title page torn with partial loss of imprint
Title proper: […] modern minstrels
Note on title: Description based on an imperfect copy; title torn, removing all lettering above lower portion of “modern”
0.4.64 Blank spaces intended for completion
0.4.64.1 If transcribing text containing a blank space intended to be completed after the resource is issued, supply the word “blank” enclosed in square brackets. Make an explanatory note.
Title proper: A catalogue of books, to be sold on [blank] the [blank] day of February, 1755
Note on title: Spaces in the title for the exact day and date of the auction left blank by printer
Note on item (optional): Library’s copy has date of auction supplied in manuscript: [Wednesday] the [26th] day of February, 1755
0.4.64.3 If the blank occurs in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of title without the interpolated word “[blank]” (see 1.25.3545.1).
0.4.65 Blank spaces for initial letters
0.4.65.1 If a space for an initial letter has been left blank, supply the intended letter in square brackets, regardless of whether the letter has been executed in manuscript.
Make an explanatory note.
Title proper: [M]issae familiares
Note on title: Space for initial letter of first word of title left blank by printer
Note on item (optional): Library’s copy: Initial letter executed in red and blue ink
0.4.65.2 If a guide letter has been printed, transcribe it without square brackets. In case of doubt about whether a printed guide letter is present, transcribe the letter without square brackets.
Title proper: Historiarum libri XXXV
Note on item (optional): Library’s copy: Printed guide letter “H” at beginning of title not executed in manuscript
0.4.7 Inaccuracies, misprints, etc.
0.4.72 Misprints and unintentional inaccuracies
0.4.72.1 Transcribe misprints or unintentional misspellings as they appear on the source. Follow such an inaccuracy either by “[sic]” or by “that is,” and the correction within square brackets.
Of the knowledeg [sic] whiche maketh a wise man
Archivum Eurasiae medii aeivi [that is, aevi]
The notted [that is, noted] history of Mother Grim
0.4.72.2 If the misprint or misspelling occurs in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record Variant titles of manifestation for the form of title without the interpolation and for the form of title as if it had been printed or written correctly (see 1.25.355.1).
0.4.72.3 Do not correct words spelled according to older or non-standard orthographic conventions (“françoise” for “française,” or “antient” for “ancient”).
0.4.72.4 Alternative rule. Transcribe the text as it appears on the source without the interpolation. Make a note correcting the misprint or misspelling.
If the misprint or misspelling occurs in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of title as if it had been printed or written correctly (see 1.25.355.1).
0.4.73 Deliberate misspellings
0.4.73.1 Do not correct deliberately misspelled words. If considered important, make an explanatory note.
Title proper: The summer shower, or, Mademoiselle Par, a Pluye
Note on title: “Par, a Pluye” is meant to be read as “parapluie”
0.4.74 Turned and approximated letters
0.4.74.1 Transcribe a turned character, whether inadvertent or deliberate, as the intended character. Make an explanatory note if considered important.
Other title information: sent express to the Queen
Note on title: The “u” in “Queen” in the title is turned
0.4.74.2 Transcribe characters used to approximate a different character (e.g., when VV and vv letterforms have been used to represent the single letter W or w) as the intended character.
Make an explanatory note if considered important.
|Forms of W|
|Source||Transcription||Example||Transcription of example|
0.4.74.3 If the characters used to approximate a different character occur in the first five words of the Title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for the form of title with the characters transcribed as set if considered important (see 1.25.356.1).
0.4.8 Other transcription rules
0.4.82 Abbreviations and contractions
0.4.82.1 When transcribing, do not abbreviate any words not abbreviated in the source.
0.4.82.2 Do not expand abbreviations or modern contractions when transcribing. If the abbreviation occurs in the first five words of the Title proper, record a Variant title of manifestation if considered important (see 1.25.3565.1).
0.4.84 Letters or words intended to be read more than once
0.4.84.1 If a letter or word appears only once on the source of information but the layout makes it clear that it is intended to be read more than once, then repeat the letter or word.
Make an explanatory note.
Title proper: Here comes Santa Claus
Note on title: Title words alternate vertically and horizontally, intersecting with shared letters, as in a crossword puzzle
0.4.86 Superscripts and subscripts
0.4.86.1 Transcribe superscript and subscript characters on the line unless the sense would be affected (e.g., in a mathematical formula). Always transcribe a period in an abbreviation at the end of the abbreviation.
Mr. Jas. McAdam
(Source of information reads: M.r J.as McAdam)
M. Vdr. Gucht sculp.
(Source of information reads: M. V.dr Gucht Sculp.)
(Comment: Engraver is Michael van der Gucht, also frequently known as Michael Vander Gucht)
(Source of information reads: Caro.e Watson)
(Comment: Engraver is Caroline Watson)
0.4.88 Numbers expressed as numerals or words
0.4.88.1 When recording numbers expressed as numerals or as words in a transcribed element, transcribe them in the form in which they appear on the source of information. Apply the general guidelines on transcription as applicable. If the number occurs in the first five words of the title proper (the first six words if the title begins with an article), record a Variant title of manifestation for forms of the title with numbers converted to numerals or words if considered important (see 1.25.3583.1).
Fifty two sermons for every Sunday of the year MDCCXXVII
0.4.88.2 For dates of publication, distribution, and manufacture, transcribe the date as it appears. If the date is not in arabic numerals, add the equivalent year in arabic numerals in square brackets.
See the instructions for specific types of dates as follows:
- For Date of publication, see 5.23.31
- For Date of distribution, see 5.28.31
- For Date of manufacture, see 5.33.352
0.4.9 Intra- and inter-element rules
0.4.92 Grammatical inseparability
0.4.92.1 Do not omit or transpose grammatically inseparable text, regardless of whether it contains information belonging to other data elements. Consider text to be grammatically inseparable if it is connected by a case ending, or its transposition or omission would disturb the grammatical construction of information.
The posthumous works of Robert Hooke
Brown’s industrial gazetteer and hand-book of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R.R.
0.4.94 Order and transposition
0.4.94.05 DCRMR calls for descriptive information from the resource to be transcribed into elements in a standardized, specific order, which corresponds to area order in International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) and which also forms the basis of chapter organization in DCRMR. Within each area, element order may be further specified. The order of commonly used elements is given below; further elements and the order thereof may be specified in the DCRMR text.
- Title and statement of responsibility
- Title proper
- Other title information
- Statement of responsibility
- Designation of edition
- Statement of responsibility relating to edition
- Production, publication, distribution, manufacture
- Place of publication, etc.
- Name of publisher, etc.
- Date of publication, etc.
- Title of series
- Other title information of series
- Statement of responsibility relating to series
- Numbering within sequence
DCRMR calls for information to be transposed to conform to the order above; for example, a statement of responsibility that precedes the title proper on the title page is considered to be transposed when recorded in the Statement of responsibility element. To facilitate understanding of the presentation of transcribed information as it appears on the resource, DCRMR calls for a note indicating the original position of any transposed elements.
DCRMR is an element-based, display- and encoding-neutral descriptive standard and acknowledges that different displays may present elements in different order. However, the use of ISBD order as an organizing principle for transcription allows users to distinguish between different manifestations of expressions and works (Principle of DCRMR construction I.01.321.1) and allows catalogers to accurately represent the resource as it describes itself (Principle of DCRMR construction I.01.322.1).
The following general rules about order and transposition apply. See also Grammatical inseparability, 0.4.92.1.
0.4.94.1 Follow the conventions appropriate to the script of the material when determining the order in which to transcribe information. For materials in roman script, this will generally mean proceeding from left to right and from top to bottom when transcribing information.
0.4.94.2 If information appears in the source in a different order than that specified by ISBD presentation, transpose the information to its appropriate data element unless: case endings would be affected, the grammatical construction of the information would be disturbed, the text is otherwise grammatically inseparable from its surrounding elements, or the data element instructions specify otherwise.
0.4.94.3 Similarly, if the order of information in the source would result in a transcription that is confusing, awkward, or nonsensical, transpose the information as needed into the data element that makes the most sense. This will typically apply when particular elements of text have been distinguished in the source by their size, typography, or style of letterforms in order to imply an obvious natural reading order.
0.4.94.4 Do not use the mark of omission to indicate transposition.
0.4.94.5 Make a note to indicate the order in which the transposed information appears in the source.
Of the nature of things : in six books : illustrated with proper and useful notes / T. Lucretius Carus ; adorned with copper-plates, curiously engraved by Guernier and others ; in two volumes
Note on statement of responsibility: Author’s name transposed from head of title
(Source of information reads: T. Lucretius Carus Of the nature of things, in six books. Illustrated with proper and useful notes. Adorned with copper-plates, curiously engraved by Guernier and others. In two volumes)
(Comment: Information is transcribed in three elements: Title proper; Other title information; and Statement of responsibility relating to title proper. The example is formatted according to ISBD for clarity)
0.4.94.6 If information appears in scattered form on the preferred source of information but no transposition is needed and information about the specific placement of the scattered information is considered important, make a note to indicate the placement.
Drinking electricity / Tom Raworth
Note on statement of responsibility: Type-signed at end of poem: Tom Raworth
(Comment: Information is transcribed in two elements: Title proper and Statement of responsibility relating to title proper. The example is formatted according to ISBD for clarity)
0.4.94.7 If the sequence and layout of the information in the source are ambiguous or otherwise insufficient to determine the order, transcribe the information in the order that makes the most sense. Make a note to indicate the ambiguity of the order in the source if considered important for identification or selection.
Title proper: Our choice, Grover Cleveland, A.G. Thurman. Democratic nominees, for president, for vice president
Note on title: Title assembled from words scattered on four banners, above and below the image