6.21 — Extent of manifestation

Contents:

6.21.1 Element information

6.21.1.1 Link to RDA Toolkit

6.21.1.2 Sources of information

6.21.2 RDA definition and scope

6.21.2.1 A number and type of unit or subunit of a manifestation.

6.21.4 Extent of manifestations of text

6.21.42 Manifestations in one physical unit

6.21.421 General rule

6.21.421.1 Record every leaf in the volume or other physical unit as issued by the publisher, including leaves of text, leaves of plates, and blank leaves. Do not record leaves added as part of the binding or the binding itself.

6.21.421.2 Record the complete number of pages, leaves, or columns in accordance with the terminology suggested by the volume (or other physical unit) itself. For a volume with leaves numbered on both sides, or with leaves unnumbered and printed on both sides, record the extent in pages. If the leaves are numbered on one side but printed on both sides, record the numbering as leaves. For a volume with leaves numbered and printed on one side only, or with leaves unnumbered and printed on one side only, record the extent in leaves and record this fact in a [Note on extent of manifestation](/DCRMR/phys-desc/Note-on-extent-of-manifestation/) if considered important (see 6.215.421.2). For a volume with more than one numbered column to the page, record the extent in columns. If a manifestation contains sequences in more than one kind of numbering, record each sequence in its appropriate term as pages, leaves, or columns.

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 48 leaves
Note on extent of manifestation: Numbered leaves with text on both sides

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 232 pages

6.21.421.3 Record the number on the last numbered page or leaf of each numbered sequence as the basic statement of extent, with any necessary additions according to relevant rules (e.g., 6.21.4225.1, for the addition of unnumbered pages or leaves). Record arabic and roman numerals as they appear in the manifestation. Record roman numerals uppercase or lowercase as they appear. If the pages or leaves are lettered rather than numbered, record the first and last letters followed by the word indicating pages or leaves. Use arabic numerals to designate pages, etc. that are numbered in words or in characters other than arabic or roman numerals and always make an explanatory Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.421.3).

Example:
viii, 256 pages

Example:
87, [1] pages

6.21.421.4 If the leaves are all or chiefly non-letterpress, record them as ordinary leaves or pages rather than leaves or pages of plates as in 6.21.426. Always record that the leaves are non-letterpress in Details of production method (see 6.275.3.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [1], 13 leaves
Details of production method: Engraved, with a letterpress title page

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 28 leaves
Details of production method: Wholly engraved

6.21.422 Normally imposed single sheets

6.21.422.1 For a normally imposed single-folded (i.e., four-page) sheet, record the Extent of manifestation in the same manner as for a volume. Apply this rule even if only one of the four pages is printed. Record the presence of blank pages as a Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.422.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 1, [3] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Last three pages are blank

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [4] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Folded single sheet; last three pages are blank

See 6.21.42856.21.429 for all other single-sheet manifestations.

6.21.4225 Unnumbered pages or leaves

6.21.4225.1 Record unnumbered sequences of pages or leaves according to the terms used to describe the rest of the manifestation or the part of the manifestation with which they are associated. In ambiguous cases count them as leaves when they are all printed on one side only; otherwise count them as pages. If the gatherings are discernible, include in the count blank leaves at the beginning of the first gathering or at the end of the final gathering when they are present in an item in hand or are known to be present in other exemplars of the manifestation. Record the presence of such blank leaves in Note on extent of manifestation if considered important (see 6.215.423.1). Do not count possibly blank leaves wanting according to signature count and not known to exist in other exemplars. Record unnumbered pages or leaves by enclosing the total number in the sequence within square brackets.

Example:
[4], 52 pages

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [4], 73, [3] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: The first and last leaves are blank

Example:
iv, [40], 328 pages

Example:
[12], 112 pages, 113-120 leaves, 121-568 pages, 569-604 leaves, 605-913, [15] pages

6.21.4225.2 Consider numbered sequences to include unnumbered pages or leaves falling logically within the sequence, counting back from the recorded number to 1.

Example:
[2], 40 pages
(Comment: Pages are numbered 3-40 with four unnumbered pages at the beginning)

but

[2], 5-40 pages
(Comment: Pages are numbered 5-40 with two unnumbered pages at the beginning; there is no evidence that any leaves are missing)

6.21.4225.3 Record unnumbered blank pages or blank leaves interrupting a numbered sequence by enclosing the number of unnumbered pages or leaves in square brackets between page or leaf numbers where the interruption occurs.

Example:
200, [8], 201-232 pages

Example:
42, [2], 43-145, [3], 147-161, [3], 163-180, [6] pages

6.21.423 Errata leaves

6.21.423.1 Include errata leaves (but not errata slips) in Extent of manifestation whether or not they are integral to a gathering. Always record the presence of errata leaves and errata slips as Supplementary content (see 9.33.31.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [2], 46, [2] pages
Supplementary content: Errata on page [47]

6.21.4235 Advertisements

6.21.4235.1 Record leaves or pages consisting solely of advertisements only when they are clearly integral to the manifestation, such as when the advertisements are:

  • included in the same pagination or foliation sequence as the text
  • printed on the pages or leaves of an initial or final gathering also containing pages or leaves of text
  • printed on a separate gathering that is continuously signed, connected by a catchword, or otherwise integral to the manifestation

6.21.4235.2 Record the presence of pages that contain only advertisements as Supplementary content (see 9.33.3.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: iv, 188, [2] pages
Supplementary content: Publisher’s advertisements on [2] pages at end

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [52], 156, [4] pages
Supplementary content: Publisher’s advertisements on [4] pages at end

6.21.4235.3 Describe advertisements that do not fall into any of these categories as Modification of item if considered important (see 9.41.3.2).

6.21.424 Multiple sequences of numbering

6.21.424.1 If the form of numbering within a sequence changes (e.g., from roman to arabic numerals), record each differently numbered part of the sequence. If unnumbered pages appear between the two forms of numbering, record the total number of unnumbered pages in arabic numerals within square brackets.

Example:
xvi, 17-328 pages

Example:
xv, [2], 18-328 pages

6.21.424.2 If the manifestation has duplicate sequences of paging, as is sometimes the case with manifestations having parallel texts, record both pagings and make an explanatory Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.424.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: xii, [1], 35, 35, [1] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Opposite pages bear duplicate numbering

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [3], 2-11, 2-11, 12 pages, 13-19, 21 leaves, 22-44, [1] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Page numbers 2-11 are duplicated on facing pages; 13-18 and 21 are folding letterpress tables, numbered as leaves; pages 22-44 start numbering on recto and are conventionally numbered

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [1], vii, vii, [2], vii, vii, 95, 95, 94-131, 94-131, [3] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Text in English and French on opposite pages, numbered in duplicate

6.21.424.3 If a volume has groups of pages or leaves numbered in opposite directions, as is sometimes the case with manifestations having texts in two languages, record the pagination or foliation of the various sections in order, starting from the title page or other preferred source of information selected for the description.

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [8], 334, 32 pages
Note on extent of manifestation: “Prima elementa linguae Syriacae Iesu-Christo vernaculae,” 32 pages at end, has separate title page and is bound back-to-front

6.21.424.4 If a volume has pagination of its own and also bears the pagination of a larger resource of which it is a part, record the paging of the individual volume. Record the pagination of the larger sequence in a Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.424.2).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 16 pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Pages 4-16 also numbered 196-208

6.21.424.5 If the pages, leaves, or columns of a manifestation are numbered as part of a larger sequence (e.g., one volume of a multipart publication), or the exemplar of the manifestation appears to be an incomplete part of a whole, record the number of the first and the last numbered page, leaf, or column, preceded by the appropriate term (see 6.21.428.1).

Example:
pages 713-797, [1]
(Comment: Fragment, detached from larger work)

but

[1], 432-488 pages
(Comment: This is a complete publication issued separately with this pagination; an offprint from Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, volume 4, part 2, Manchester, 1796)

6.21.424.6 If a manifestation contains multiple sequences of numbered or unnumbered pages, leaves, or columns, preferably record all of the sequences in the form and sequence presented.

Example:
xiv pages, xv-xlii, 496 columns, [1], 498-534, [2] pages

Example:
[14], 196 pages, 197-200 leaves, 200, [8], 201-569, [3], 573-599, 596-654, 657-706, [20] pages

If it is not practical to record all the sequences (e.g., if they are exceedingly numerous), then employ one of the following methods:

a) Record the total number of pages, leaves, or columns followed by “in various pagings,” “in various foliations,” or “in various numberings”

Example:
384 pages in various pagings

b) Record the number of pages, leaves, or columns in the main sequence and the total number of the remaining variously numbered or unnumbered sequences

Example:
416 pages, 98 pages in various pagings

c) As a last resort, record the physical unit in which the manifestation was issued (e.g., volume, case, or portfolio) followed by “(various pagings),” “(various foliations),” or “(various numberings)”

Example:
1 volume (various pagings)

If one of these methods is employed, record all of the sequences in a Note on extent of manifestation if considered important (see 6.215.424.3).

6.21.4245 Expansions or corrections

6.21.4245.1 Make a Note on extent of manifestation giving more precise information about pagination or foliation, blank pages or leaves, or other aspects of collation if considered important (see 6.215.421.1).

6.21.4245.2 If the number of the last numbered page, leaf, or column of a sequence does not indicate the correct number of pages, etc., either record the sequences exactly to indicate the source of the error or record the number as given in the manifestation and supply a correction. When correcting misleading numbering, record the numbering as it appears on the last page or leaf followed by “that is,” and the correct number in square brackets. Provide an explanatory Note on extent of manifestation if considered important (see 6.215.4245.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 564 [that is, 56] leaves
Note on extent of manifestation: Leaf 56 wrongly numbered 564

If the manifestation is numbered as leaves, but printed as pages, record the numbering as leaves. Do not record in the extent the equivalent number in pages (see 6.21.421.2).

6.21.425 Lack of numbering

6.21.425.1 If the whole volume is unpaginated or unfoliated, count the pages or leaves and record the total in arabic numerals within square brackets. State the total in terms of pages or leaves, but not of both. Begin the count with the first page or leaf of the first gathering and end the count with the last page or leaf of the last gathering, as instructed in 6.21.4225.1. Count all blank pages or leaves.

Example:
[94] pages

6.21.425.2 Optionally, if determining the total number of pages or leaves of an unnumbered manifestation might damage an item in fragile condition, give the appropriate designation (e.g., “volume”) from the RDA Value Vocabularies: RDA Carrier Type followed by “(unpaged)” or “(unfoliated)”.

Example:
1 volume (unpaged)

6.21.426 Leaves or pages of plates

6.21.426.1 Record the number of leaves or pages of plates at the end of the sequence(s) of pagination or foliation, whether the plates are found together or distributed throughout the manifestation. Record the number even when there is only one plate. Count unnumbered leaves or pages of plates as they present themselves, regardless of terms used to describe the rest of the manifestation. For a plate folded and bound at the inner margin, see 6.21.4275.

Example:
xii, 277, [11] pages, 48 pages of plates

Example:
x, 32, [2] pages, xxii leaves of plates

Example:
[12] pages, 924 columns, [129], 432, [18], 43 pages, 44-77 columns, [6], 90-160, [6] pages, [1] leaf of plates

6.21.426.2 In general, record the exact number of leaves or pages of plates. If it is not practical to record all the sequences (e.g., if they are exceedingly numerous), record an estimated number.

Example:
viii, 298 pages, approximately 55 leaves of plates

6.21.426.3 If a volume contains a mixture of unnumbered leaves and pages of plates, record the total number either in terms of leaves or of pages, whichever is predominant. Record unnumbered pages or leaves by enclosing the total number in the sequence within square brackets.

Example:
[12] pages, [24] pages of plates, [2] leaves of plates

6.21.426.4 Count title pages (and added title pages) as leaves or pages of plates if they are entirely or chiefly non-letterpress (e.g., engraved or lithographed) and not integral to any letterpress gatherings. Always make a Note on extent of manifestation to indicate any title page counted as a plate (see 6.215.426.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 112 pages, [1] leaf of plates
Note on extent of manifestation: Plate has engraved title page on recto and blank verso

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [10], 192, [2] pages, [1] leaf of plates
Note on extent of manifestation: With an added engraved title page, which has been counted as the plate

6.21.426.5 As a last resort, if a manifestation’s gatherings cannot be ascertained, or it is otherwise difficult to tell whether a leaf constitutes a plate, record it in terms of pages or leaves of plates if unnumbered and pages or leaves of text if included in the numbering sequence of the text.

6.21.427 Folded plates

6.21.427.1 Record folded plates as leaves or pages of plates. Count a plate folded and attached at one of its outer margins as one folded leaf of plates. Count a plate folded and attached at its fold as two leaves of plates. Make a Note on extent of manifestation to indicate any folded letterpress leaves of plates if considered important (see 6.215.427.1).

Example:
[8], 30, [8], 31-213, [3] pages, [3] folded leaves of plates

Example:
183, [1] pages, [9] leaves of plates (7 folded)

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [10], 199 [that is, 203], [33] pages, [3] folded leaves of plates
Note on extent of manifestation: The folded leaves are letterpress tables not included in signature statement

6.21.4275 Double leaves

6.21.4275.1 Record numbered double leaves (leaves with fold at either top or fore edge bound at the inner margin such that they cannot be unfolded, as is often the case with Asian books) as pages or as leaves according to their numbering. Count unnumbered double leaves as pages (two printed pages per double leaf) or as leaves (one printed page per double leaf). Always record the presence of double leaves in a Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.4275.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [2], 86, [2] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: Printed on double leaves, with uncut fold at the fore edge

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [4], 28 pages, [86] leaves of plates
Note on extent of manifestation: Some plates printed on double leaves

6.21.428 Incomplete manifestations

6.21.428.1 If a volume, or an individual sequence of pages or leaves within a volume, lacks pages or leaves at its end—or an unpaginated or unfoliated volume or sequence lacks any pages or leaves—and the paging or foliation of a complete exemplar of the manifestation cannot be ascertained, record the number of the last numbered or unnumbered page, leaf, or column using the appropriate term followed by ”(incomplete).” If pages or leaves appear to be missing from both the first and last part of the volume and the extent of the complete volume cannot be ascertained, record the first and last numbers of the pages, leaves, or columns preceded by the appropriate term and followed by “(incomplete)”. Record in a Note on extent of manifestation that the extent is based on an incomplete exemplar (see 6.215.428.1). Record the imperfection in a Note on extent of item if considered important (see 9.43.3.2).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 142 pages (incomplete)
Note on extent of manifestation: Extent based on incomplete copy
Note on extent of item: Library copy incomplete; all after page 142 wanting
(Comment: No other known copy found)

6.21.4285 Sheets, rolls, cases, portfolios, etc.

6.21.4285.1 For a manifestation in a single physical unit other than a volume (e.g., a sheet, a roll, a case, or a portfolio), use an appropriate designation (“sheet,” etc.) preceded by the arabic numeral 1. Prefer terminology from the RDA Value Vocabularies: RDA Carrier Type. Record a statement of pagination or foliation in parentheses following the designation.

Example:
1 portfolio (34 pages, 25 folded sheets)

6.21.4285.2 If the portfolio or case was not issued with the resource, do not record it as part of Extent of manifestation. Instead, record the extent in terms of pages, leaves, columns, sheets, or volumes as appropriate. In situations of uncertainty, assume that the portfolio or case was not issued with the resource. Record the presence of the case or portfolio in a Note on extent of item if considered important (see 9.43.3.3).

6.21.429 Single-sheet manifestations

6.21.429.1 For a manifestation consisting of a single sheet designed to be used unfolded (whether issued folded or unfolded), add a statement of pagination based on the number of pages printed, not counting blanks, in parentheses.

Example:
1 sheet (2 pages)
(Comment: Sheet of any size printed on both sides, numbered)

Example:
1 sheet ([2] pages)
(Comment: Sheet of any size printed on both sides, unnumbered)

Example:
1 sheet (3 pages)
(Comment: Folded sheet with title and colophon printed as two pages on “outside”; all text printed as one page occupying the entire “inside”)

Example:
1 sheet (1 page)
(Comment: Broadside or other sheet printed on one side, numbered)

Example:
1 sheet ([1] page)
(Comment: Broadside or other sheet printed on one side, unnumbered)

6.21.429.2 For a manifestation consisting of a single sheet folded into multiple panels, record the number of physical panels on one side of the sheet when unfolded. Include both blank panels and panels containing text or illustrations in the count. Enclose the number in square brackets if the panels are unnumbered. Record features of the sheet’s layout (including the numbering of the panels) in Details of layout if considered important (see 6.285.3.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 1 folded sheet ([18] panels)
Details of layout: A folded sheet with eighteen panels on each side when unfolded. All panels are unnumbered

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 1 folded sheet ([4] panels)
Details of layout: A folded sheet with four panels on each side. The “outside” contains a title panel, two panels of text, and a “Guide map” or street map on the fourth panel. The “inside” contains a plat map of the property being auctioned spread over all four panels

For a normally imposed single-folded (i.e., four-page) sheet see 6.21.422.1.

6.21.43 Manifestations in more than one physical unit

6.21.431 General rule

6.21.431.1 If a manifestation is issued in more than one physical unit, record the number of physical units in arabic numerals followed by the appropriate designation for the unit (e.g., “volumes”). Prefer terminology from the RDA Value Vocabularies: RDA Carrier Type (see also 6.21.421.2).

Example:
5 volumes

Example:
2 sheets

6.21.431.2 If a manifestation has been issued in fascicles intended to be bound into one or more physical units, record the number of pages, leaves, or volumes appropriate to its final form or completed. Always make a Note on extent of manifestation to indicate that it was issued in fascicles (see 6.215.431.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 70 pages, xxiii leaves of plates
Note on extent of manifestation: Issued in 6 fascicles

6.21.431.3 If the number of physical units in which a manifestation is bound differs from the number in which it was actually issued, record this fact in a Note on extent of item if considered important (see 9.43.3.4).

Example:
Note on extent of item: Library copy bound in four physical volumes and interleaved with a Latin translation of Plutarch’s Lives
(Comment: The manifestation was issued in one volume)

6.21.434 Bibliographic volumes vs. physical volumes

6.21.434.1 If the number of the manifestation’s bibliographic volumes differs from the number of physical volumes, record the number of physical volumes. Always make a Note on extent of manifestation indicating the number of bibliographic volumes (see 6.215.434.1).

6.21.435 Pagination continuous

6.21.435.1 If the pagination of a manifestation in more than one physical unit is continuous, record the number of pages, leaves, or columns in parentheses after the number of units.

Example:
4 volumes ([4], 30, 32-33, 848, 835-1643, [1] pages, [1] leaf of plates)

Example:
2 volumes (vi, 200, [4] pages, CCC leaves of plates)

6.21.435.2 If there are separately paged sequences of preliminary matter in volumes other than the first, record the number of volumes only. If considered important, record the full pagination in a Note on extent of manifestation.

6.21.435.3 Optionally, if there is separately numbered or unnumbered preliminary matter in volumes other than the first that interrupt the sequence of pagination, and it is considered important to record the full pagination in Extent of manifestation, follow the provisions of 6.21.436.

6.21.436 Pagination not continuous

6.21.436.1 Optionally, if the pagination of a manifestation in more than one physical unit is not continuous, record the number of pages, leaves, or columns of each unit either in parentheses after the number of units or in a Note on extent of manifestation (see 6.215.436.1). Separate the counts for individual units with a semicolon and a space.

Example:
4 volumes ([4], 527, [1]; 12, 548; 8, 533, [3]; 4, 499, [1] pages)

Example:
2 volumes (4, lvi, 265 [that is, 267], [1] pages, [1] leaf of plates; [6], 3-294 pages, [4] leaves of plates)

Example:
Extent of manifestation: 4 volumes
Note on extent of manifestation: Pagination: vi, [2], 590 pages, [2] leaves of plates; [4], 493, [1] pages, [2] leaves of plates; [4], 519, [1] pages, [6] leaves of plates; [4], 516, [20] pages, [16] leaves of plates

6.21.437 Discontinued manifestations

6.21.437.1 If a publication planned for more than one physical unit has been or appears to have been discontinued before completion, describe the incomplete set as appropriate (i.e., record paging for a single volume or the number of volumes for multiple volumes). Always make a Note on extent of manifestation indicating that no more units have been issued (see 6.215.437.1).

Example:
Extent of manifestation: [8], xl, 507, [1], xxix, [3] pages
Note on extent of manifestation: No more published
(Comment: Title page states “Part the first”)


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